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Stephen S. Lefrak, M.D.
Stephen S. Lefrak, M.D.

Stephen S. Lefrak, M.D.

Professor of Medicine
Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine

Washington University School of Medicine
660 S. Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8052
St. Louis, MO 63110
(314) 454-7116 (phone)
(314) 454-7524 (fax)

slefrak@im.wustl.edu

Research Interests

History of Medical Ethics in the 20th Century, Research Ethics.

Biographical Sketch

Research

Dr. Lefrak directs major effort in understanding and elucidating the course of medicine during the National Socialist era (1933-1945) and its impact on contemporary medicine (see Chest ~ Sept. 2007, Dec. 2007)

Publications

1, DiBenedetto R and Lefrak SS: Systemic sarcoidosis with severe involvement of the upper respiratory tract. Am Rev Resp Dis 1970; 102:801

2. Thomas III HM, Lefrak SS and Frittus Jr. HW: Blood oxygen affinity and acid base state in patients with alcoholic liver disease and in normals. Fed Proc 1970;29:329

3. Sheehy AF, DiBenedetto R, Lefrak SS and Lyons HA: The treatment of status asthmaticus. Arch Int Med 1972;130:37-42

4. Thomas IV HM, Lefrak SS, Irwin RS, Fritts Jr. HW and Caldwell PRB: The oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve in health and disease. Am J Med 1974;57:331-348

5. Senior RM, Lefrak SS and Korenblat PE: The management of status asthmaticus. JAMA 1975;231:1277-1279

6. Lefrak SS, Byrd R and Senior RM: Chemoprophylaxis of tuberculosis. Arch Int Med 1975;135:606-611

7. Marion JM, Alderson PO, Lefrak SS, Senior RM and Jacobs MH: Unilateral lung function: Comparison of the lateral position test with radionuclid ventilation-perfusion studies. Chest 1976;69:5-9

8. Senior RM, Lefrak SS and Kleiger RE: The left ventricle with emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Geriatrics 1976;31:103-6.

9. Lefrak SS: Anesthesiology. Respiratory problems in the aging: Physiology of the aging respiratory system. Audio-Digest Foundation 1976;18

10. Kleiger RE, Lefrak SS, Biggs FD and Senior RM: How to detect and treat arrhythmias in chronic lung disease Geriatrics 1976;31:69-75

11. Rodriguez RJ, Lefrak SS and Sinks DE: Physiological effects of intermittent mandatory ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977;115(supp):157 (1977)

12. Biggs FD, Lefrak SS, Kleiger RE, Senior RM and Oliver GC: Disturbances of rhythm in chronic lung disease. Heart and Lung 1977;6:256-161

13. Lefrak, SS: Preoperative evaluation for lung resection - the role of radionuclide lung scanning. Chest 1977;72:419-420 (editorial)

14. Geha AS, Seegers JV, Kodner IJ and Lefrak SS: Tracheoesophageal fistula caused by cuffed tracheal tube. Arch Surg 1978;113:338-340

15. Davis HH, Schwartz DJ, Lefrak SS, Susman N and Schainker BA: Alveolar-capillary oxygen disequilibrium in hepatic cirrhosis. Chest 1978;73:507-511

16. Campbell EJ and Lefrak SS: How aging affects the structure and function of the respiratory system. Geriatrics 1978;33:68-74

17. Davis HD, Lefrak SS, Malt S and Miller D: Prolonged mechanically assisted ventilation. An analysis of outcome and charges. JAMA 1980;243:43-45

18. Aronberg DJ, Sagel SD, Lefrak SS, Kuhn C and Susman N: Lung carcinoma associated with bullous lung disease in young men. AJR 1980;134(2):249-252

19. Jacobs JR, Levine LA, Davis H, Lefrak SS, Druck NS and Ogura JH: Posterior packs and the nasopulmonary reflex. The Laryngoscope 1981;91(2):279-284

20. Swan HJC, Bjoraker D, Emerson C, Lefrak SS, Mangano DT and Weil MH: Heparin-coated pulmonary artery catheters: Clinical and technical considerations (a round table discussion). Am Rev of Diagnostics 1983;2:49-55.

21. Lefrak SS: Review of respiratory muscles. Chest Year End Review, Cardio-Pulmonary Medicine (1983)

22. Martinez E, St. John RE and Lefrak SS: The relationship of oxygen uptake to oxygen delivery in critically ill patients, Am Rev Resp Dis, 1985;131:A151

23. St. John RE, Lefrak SS, Ridoffi G, and Bohlmann P: Pulmonary aspiration of continuous formula feeding during mechanical ventilation, Am Rev Resp Dis, 1985;131:A163

24. Liggett SB, St. John RE, Lefrak SS: Determination of resting energy expenditure utilizing the thermodilution pulmonary artery catheter, Chest 1987;91:562-566

25. St. John RE, Lefrak SS, Martinez E: The measurement of O2 uptake in critically ill patients: A comparison of two methods, Am Rev Resp Dis, 1988;137S

26. Bone RC, Rackow EC, Weg JG, and members of the ACCP/SCCM Consensus Panel: An ACCP/SCCM Consensus Panel. Ethical and moral guidelines for the initiation, continuation, and withdrawal of intensive care. Chest, 1990;97:949-958

27. St. John RE and Lefrak SS: Alternate modes of mechanical ventilation. AACN Clinical Issues in Critical Care Nursing, 1990;1:248-259

28. Chinsky KD, St. John RE and Lefrak SS: A randomized, prospective comparison of intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) weaning with and without pressure support ventilation. Am Rev Resp Dis, 1991;143:A602

29. Lanken PN, Ahlheit BD, Crawford S, Hansen-Flaschen JH, Lefrak SS, et al: ATS Medical Section of the American Lung Association Statement: Withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy, Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;144:726-731 and reprinted in Annals 1991;115:478-485

30. Lefrak SS: Tuberculosis screening in a nursing home - indications for preventive therapy. JAMA, 1991;266:2000, 2003

31. Ginsburg J and the Residency Services Committee of the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM): Position paper on substance abuse during residency training, Ann Int Med, 1992;116:145-54

32. Lefrak SS: Human Genome Project: Strategic Plan or Boondoggle? In: The Human Genome Project, Proceedings of the ITEST Workshop, October, 1992, eds. Postiglione SM and Brungs R, ITEST Faith/Science Press, St. Louis, MO, pp.31-46 (1993)

33. Lefrak SS: Assisted death and physician-assisted suicide (letter). NEJM, 1993;328:964-966

34. Waxman HS, Braunstein G, Dantzker D, Goldberg S, Lefrak S, Lichstein E, Ratzan R and Schiffman F: Performance on the internal medicine second year residency in-training examination predicts the outcome of the ABIM certifying examination. J Gen Intern Med, 1994;9:692-694

35. Yusen RD, Trulock EP, Lefrak SS, et al: Volume reduction surgery patient selection and results. Chest, 108:96S (1995)

36. Cooper JD, Lefrak SS: Is volume reduction surgery appropriate in the treatment of emphysema? Yes. (editorial), Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 153:1201-1204 (1996)

37. Cooper JD, Patterson GA, Sundaresan RS, Trulock EP, Yusen RD, Pohl MS, and Lefrak SS: Results of 150 consecutive bilateral lung volume reduction procedures in patients with severe emphysema. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 112:5:1319-1330 (1996)

38. Brenner M, Yusen R, McKenna R, Sciurba F, Gelb AF, Fischel R, Swain J, Chen JC, Kafie F, and Lefrak SS: Lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema. Chest 1996;110:205-18.

39. Wang SC, Fischer KC, Slone RM, Gierada DS, Yusen RD, Lefrak SS, Pilgram TK, and Cooper JD: Perfusion scintigraphy in the evaluation for lung volume reduction surgery: correlation with clinical outcome. Radiology 1997;205:243-248.

40. Gierada DS, Slone RM, Bae KT, Yusen RD, Lefrak SS, and Cooper JD: Pulmonary emphysema: comparison of preoperative quantitative CT and physiologic index values with clinical outcome after lung-volume reduction surgery. Radiology 1997;205:235-42.

41. Lefrak SS, Yusen RD, Trulock EP, Pohl MS, Patterson A, and Cooper JD: Recent Advances in Surgery For Emphysema. Annu. Rev. Med. 48:387-98 (1997)

42. Yusen RD, Lefrak SS, and Trulock EP: Evaluation and preoperative management of lung volume reduction surgery candidates. Clin Chest Med 1997;18(2):199-224.

43. Meyers BF, Yusen RD, Lefrak SS, Patterson GA, Pohl M, Richardson V, and Cooper JD: Outcome of Medicare patients with emphysema selected for, but denied, a lung volume reduction operation. Ann Thoracic Surg 1998;66:331-6.

44. Cooper JD, and Lefrak SS: Lung-reduction surgery: 5 years on. Surgery 1999;353:sl26-7.

45. Gierada DS, Yusen RD, Villanueva IA, Pilgram TK, Slone RM, Lefrak SS, and Cooper JD: Patient selection for lung volume reduction surgery: an objective model based on the prior clinical decisions and quantitative CT analysis. Chest 2000; 117:991-998.

46. Gierada DS, Saam B, Yablonskiy D, Cooper JD, Lefrak SS, and Conradi MS: Dynamic echo planar MR imaging of lung ventilation with hyperpolarized 3He in normal subjects and patients with severe emphysema. Submitted and accepted: NMR in Biomed 2000;13:176-181.

47. Saam BT, Yablonskiy DA, Kodibagkar VD, Leawoods JC, Gierada DS, Cooper JD, Lefrak SS, and Conradi MS: MR imaging of diffusion of He-3 gas in healthy and diseased lungs. Magn Reson Med 2000;44(2):174-179.

48. Meyers BF, Yusen RD, Guthrie TJ, Davis G, Pohl MS, Lefrak SS, Patterson GA, and Cooper JD: Outcome of bilateral lung volume reduction surgery in patients with emphysema eligible for lung transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovsc Surg 2001;122:10-27.

49. Gierada DS, Yusen RD, Pilgram TK, Crouch L, Slone RM, Bae KT, Lefrak SS, and Cooper JD: Repeatability of quantitative CT indexes of emphysema in patients evaluated for lung volume reduction surgery. Radiology 2001;220:448-454.

50. Meyers BF, Yusen RD, Lefrak SS, and Cooper JD: Improved long-term survival seen after lung volume reduction surgery compared to continued medical therapy for emphysema. Ann Thorac Surg 2001;71:2081.

51. Yablonskiy DA, Sukstanskii AL, Leawoods JC, Gierada DS, Bretthorst GL, Lefrak SS, Cooper JD, and Conradi MS: Quantitative in-vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized 3 He diffusion MRI. Med Sci 2002;5:3111-3116.

52. Cooper JD, Lefrak SS. Surgery for emphysema [comment]. N Eng J Med 2002;346:860-862

53. Ciccone AM, Meyers BF, Guthrie TJ, Davis GE, Yusen RD, Lefrak SS, Patterson GA, Cooper JD. Long-term outcome of bilateral lung volume reduction in 250 consecutive emphysema patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 125:513-525.

54. Yusen RD, Lefrak SS, Gierada DS, Davis GE, Meyers BF, Patterson GA, Cooper JD. A prospective evaluation of lung volume reduction surgery in 200 consecutive patients. Chest 2003; 123:1026-1037.

55. Chino K, Choong C, Pierce J, Cooper J, Leawoods J, Conradi M, Yablonskiy D, Lefrak S, Macklem P. Ventilation of excised human lungs via spiracles through the pleura. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2003;167(7):A546.

56. Meyers BF, Yusen Rd, Lefrak SS, Guthrie TJ, Patterson GA, Lefrak SS, David GS, Cooper JD. Results of lung volume reduction surgery in patients meeting a national emphysema treatment trial high-risk criterion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004;127:829-35.

57. Conradi MS,Yablonskiy DA, Woods JC, Jacob RE, Chang YV, Gierada DS, Sukstanskii AL, Tanoli T, Cooper JD Lefrak SS. 3He diffusion MRI of the lung. Academic Radiology 2005; Pulmonary Workshop

58. Choong CK, Macklem PT, Pierce JA, Lefrak SS, Woods JC, Conradi MS, Yablonskiy DA, Hogg JC, Chino K, Cooper, JD. Transpleural ventilation of explanted human lungs. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005.

Book Chapters/Reviews

1. Lefrak SS and Senior RM: Emphysema and chronic bronchitis. In: Current Therapy, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA (1974)

2. Senior RM, Lefrak SS and Korenblat PE: How to loosen the grip of status asthmaticus. RN, 38:5-6 (1975)

3. Rodriguez RJ and Lefrak SS: Acute respiratory failure. In: Manual of Medical Therapeutics, 22nd edition, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston (1977)

4. Senior RM and Lefrak SS: Status asthmaticus. In: Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, ed. by AP Fishman, New York, McGraw-Hill, pp 593-598 (1978)

5. Overton JE, Senior RM, Lefrak SS and Kleiger RE: The heart in COPD: Arrhythmias. (invited editorial) Chest 1979;75:1

6. Overton JE, Senior RM, Lefrak SS and Sussman N: Retrocardiac mass. Chest, 76:317-318 (1979)

7. Senior RM, Lefrak SS and Kleiger RE: The heart in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Arrhythmias. Chest, 75:1-2 (1979) (review article)

8. Lefrak SS and Campbell EJ: Structure and function of the aging respiratory system. In: Pulmonary Problems in the Adult, ed. D Gracey, Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., pp 12-37 (1981)

9. Schuster D and Lefrak SS: Acute respiratory failure. In: Manual of Medical Therapeutics, 24th edition, eds. JW Campbell and ME Frisse, Boston, Little, Brown, and Company, pp 135-152 (1983)

10. Lefrak S and Senior R: The pathophysiology of acute asthma. In: Allergy Theory and Practice, ed. Korenblat and Wedner, San Diego, Grune & Stratton, Inc. pp 297-307 (1984)

11. Lippmann MB and Lefrak SS: Acute respiratory failure. In: Conn's Current Therapy, ed. RE Rakel, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, pp 77-82 (1984)

12. Campbell EJ and Lefrak SS: Physiologic processes of aging in the respiratory system. In: Anesthesia and the Geriatric Patient, ed. SW Kretchel, New York, Grune and Stratton, Inc., pp 23-43 (1984)

13. Lefrak SS, Campbell EJ and Lippmann MB: The aging respiratory system - structure and function. In: Geriatric Anesthesia: Principles and Practice, eds. CR Stephen and RA Assaf, Stoneham, MA, Butterworth Publishers (1985)

14. Lefrak SS: Availability and capability of current technology. In: New Options, New Dilemmas. An Interprofessional Approach to Life or Death Decisions, ed. Anne S. Allen, Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, pp 3-11 and 71 (1985)

15. Schuster DP and Lefrak SS: Shock. In: Textbook of Critical Care. eds. RR Kirby, JM Civetta, and R Taylor, JB Lippincoth, Philadelphia, PA. Chapter 74, pp. 891-908 (1988)

16. Liggett SB and Lefrak SS: Interpretation of arterial blood gases in the coronary care unit. In: The Coronary Care Unit for the House Officer, ed. M Rich, Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, pp. 47-53 (1988)

17. Lefrak SS and Liggett SB: Mechanical ventilation for patients in the coronary care unit. In: The Coronary Care Unit for the House Officer, ed. M Rich, Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, pp. 54-63 (1988)

18. Lefrak SS and Senior RM: The pathophysiology of acute asthma. In: Allergy: Theory and Practice, Second edition, ed. PE Korenblat and HJ Wedner, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 387-395 (1992)

19. Schuster DP and Lefrak SS: Shock. In: Textbook of Critical Care Second edition. eds. RR Kirby, JM Civetta, and RW Taylor, JB Lippincoth, Philadelphia, PA. Chapter 32, pp. 407-426 (1992)

20. Nelson P and Lefrak SS: The aging respiratory system. In: Rehabilitation of the Aging and Older Patient, ed. G Felsenthal, FU Steinberg and S Garrison, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Inc., Baltimore, MD, pp. 23-24 (1993)

21. Lefrak SS and Lippmann MB: Acute respiratory failure. In: Conn's Current Therapy 1994, ed. RE Rakel, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, pp.150-157 (1994)

22. Yusen RD, Lefrak SS, et al: Evaluation of patients with emphysema for lung volume reduction surgery. In: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Vol 8, No 1 (January), 1996: pp 83-93

23. Lefrak, SS: The LVRS debate: Where we are, how we got there, and where were going. In: Pulmonary Perspectives Vol 14, No 2/Summer, June, (1997)

24. Meyers BF, Cooper JD, Lefrak SS, and Yusen RD: Letter to the editor. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2001;71:2081.

25. Lefrak SS: NETT Results: No Surprises. Internal Med News 2001;34(8)9.

26. Lefrak SS and Cooper JD: Accountability, the NETT, and Lung Volume Reduction Surgery. Pulmonary Perscpectives 2001;18(2)1-3.

27. Cooper JD and Lefrak SS: Lung Volume Reduction Surgery. Thoracic Surgery, Second Edition, ed. Pearson FG, Cooper JD, Deslauriers J, Ginsberg RJ, Hiebert CA, Patterson GA, Urschel, Jr. HC, Churchill Livingstone, pp 685-696 (2002)

28. Yusen RD and Lefrak SS: Pulmonary II: Diseases. Washington Manual of Ambulatory Therapeutics. Eds. Lin and Rypkema. Lippincott Williams &) Wilkins, pp 202-1 (2002